Community Psychology (from Manchester) UK

last update: 9 September, 2019 (broken link? do let us know)

Publications on Community Social Psychology
and related topics
mostly by Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan - but also by others


  please scroll down. VVV

Further publications

Unless otherwise stated, works on this page are  licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 England & Wales License.

Book: Kagan, C., Burton, M., Duckett, P., Lawthom, R., & Siddiquee, A. (2019). Critical Community Psychology. London, Routledge. Second edition. Publishing 3 October, 2019.

 Order it now

The book can be seen as a synthesis of the 'Manchester approach' to Community Psychology and we believe it is at once more theoretical and more practical than previous CP texts.

Book review of the first edition by Scot Evans  in the Global Journal of Community Psychology.

Here is a short article that sets out the basic ideas of the approach:
Burton, M., & Kagan, C. (2015). Theory and practice for a critical community psychology in the UK.
Psicología Conocimiento Y Sociedad, 5(2), 182–205.

Videos: lead author Carolyn Kagan talks with Dan Goodley about the relationship between community psychology, critical psychology and disability studies:

video 1

video 2

Carolyn Kagan on Edge effects in context of University and Community

NOTE July 2016

We are no longer (very regularly) updating this list. Full lists of our publications can be found at the following addresses:

For Mark Burton: click for Mark's Academia pages (Carolyn Kagan is also on Academia but the collection there is less full) No registration or log-in is necessary except to download pdf's. (Also Research Gate. See the collection in the “project” on Liberation Praxis in psychology and social science).

For Carolyn Kagan: (registration [free] necessary).

Kagan, C &.Burton, M.H. , (2014). Culture, identity and alternatives to the consumer culture. (In dossier:Educação, Cotidiano e Participação: desafios e contribuições para a formação). Educar Em Revista (Brazil) 53, 75 – 89

Walker, C., Burton, M., Akhurst, J., & Degirmencioglu, S. M. (2014). Locked into the System? Critical Community Psychology Approaches to Personal Debt in the Context of Crises of Capital Accumulation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, n/a–n/a. doi:10.1002/casp.2209

Mark Burton, 2 papers from the 5th International Conference of Community Psychology, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, September, 2014.

1) Economy and planet: a blind spot for community psychology? Paper. Slides.

2) Explaining Liberation Psychology in English. Notes for paper. Slides.

Mark Burton, Community Psychology under colonial occupation: the case of Palestine. Accepted for Publication: Journal of Community Psychology (Special Edition on African and Arab Enactments of Community Psychology, to appear, 2015)

Carolyn Kagan, Participatory Action Research and Community Psychology English language version of Kagan, C. (2012) La ricerca-azione partecipata e la psicologia di comunità Rome (Participatory Action Research and Comunity Psychology).In B. Zani (ed) Psicologia di comunità: Prospettive, idee, metodi. Carocci Editore. Reproduced with permission.

Mark Burton, A Renewal of Ethics. The Psychologist, November, 2013. The article is based on a lecture I gave at the British Psychological Society conference last Easter.  Rather breathlessly, it considers some ethical challenges, the inadequacy of dominant frameworks for guiding action, the origins of the contemporary malaise in the colonial encounter, and some alternative frameworks to consider.  Liberation thought runs through the article. 

Mark Burton, The analectic turn: critical psychology and the new political contextLes cahiers de psychologie politique [En ligne], numéro 23, Juillet 2013. URL : “In this article I explore the limitations of academic critical psychology, suggesting that it is a spent force, largely irrelevant to real problems of oppression and liberation.  An alternative approach which I characterise as ‘analectic critical psychology’ can be seen in the Latin American traditions of liberation psychology and community social psychology as well as in some developments in other regions.”

Mark Burton, In and against social policy Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice. 2013, Vol. 4 No. 2 or pdf version HERE Looks at the relations between the State, subaltern movements, social policy and community psychology through two case studies concerning a) transition to adulthood for young intellectually disabled people, and b) climate change plans in a local authority.

Mark Burton, Liberation psychology: a constructive critical praxis. Estud. psicol. (Campinas) vol.30 no.2 Apr./June 2013 pdf version Based on a keynote talk given at TODAP conference on critical psychology, Diyarbakir, Kurdistan, Turkey, September, 2012. Includes a discussion of the concept of recovery of historical memory in relation to social trauma.

Mark Burton A Second Psychology of Liberation? Valuing and moving beyond the Latin American The Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy 2013, Volume 13 Number 2, pp. 96-106 “The characteristics of Liberation psychology are discussed with reference to contemporary challenges. It is suggested that the approach has a contribution to make to other regions and can also be strengthened by drawing on developments elsewhere. As such it is suggested that Liberation Psychology is not, in essence, an approach of restricted relevance to Latin America.”

Possibilities for a critical community psychology in the UK. Carolyn Kagan and Mark Burton

"Over the last 30 years we have developed an approach to working in community contexts that is our approach to "Critical Community Psychology". We will set out its defining characteristics and highlight some aspects that distinguish it... ..” Talk given at International Community Psychology Conference, Birzeit University, Ramallah, Palestine, May 2013

Liberating Psychology Everywhere Mark Burton.

Symposium contribution, International Community Psychology Conference, Birzeit University, Ramallah, Palestine, May 2013

Is there a future for Community Psychology in the UK? Carolyn Kagan and Mark Burton. Address to the BPS Community Psychology Section, 2 November, 2012.

Games for community psychology. We introduced some of our games for participation and conscientisation at the Lisbon International Community Psychology Congress in 2008. Since then we have been piloting them and amending them. We are please to announce that they are now ready for you to work with and pilot yourselves. We have to charge to cover the costs of producing the games – until we know there is a demand we cannot produce lots of them and bring the costs down.  So, if you would like to order one of the games: please use this order form which also gives details of the games.

See also conference paper about these games Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice Volume 3 Issue 4 2013

Now available online ¿Existe la psicología de la liberación fuera de América latina?  Mark Burton.   Paper given at Encuentro de la psicología de la liberación.  Heredia, Costa Rica, March, 2012 (in Spanish).  Ponencia presentada al encuentro de la psicología de la liberación, Heredia, Costa Rica, marzo de 2012 (en  castellano). Now published: Burton, M. (2013). ¿Existe la psicología de la liberación fuera de América Latina? Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología Social Ignacio Martín-Baró, 2(1), pp. 158-170. In Spanish with English abstract. pdf version

Chinese Migrant Forced Labour Project
Carolyn Kagan, Sandy Lo, Lisa Mok, Rebecca Lawthom, Silvia Sham, Mark Greenwood, Sue Baines  November, 2011

Burton, M and Flores Osorio, J.M. (2011) Introducing Dussel: he Philosophy of Liberation and a really social psychology.  Psychology in Society, (41),  20-39 
Now available online on SCIELO.

Locked into the system: personal debt and capital accumulation.  by Mark Burton.
Paper presented at 8th European Community Psychology Congress, York, September 2011.

Commentaries on “The Spirit Level”  by Jim Orford, Raquel Guzzo and Mark Burton
Invited panelist responses presented at European Congress of Community Psychology, York, UK, September, 2011.

Psychology in Cuba:  A symposium 
Symposium presented at the Cuba Research Forum Annual Conference  Nottingham, UK, September, 2010
by Steve Melluish (Nottingham, UK), Roberto Corral (Havana, Cuba), Neysa Domínguez (Holguín, Cuba), Aida Torralbas (Holguín, Cuba), María Castro (London, UK), Mark Burton (Manchester, UK).    International Journal of Cuba Studies  Pre-publication drafts.

From the MMU repository

Carolyn Kagan and Karen Duggan  Birley Fields Development: Impact on the Local Community: Health and Wellbeing
Working Paper 1: Context Setting    June 2010
Working Paper 2: Masterplanning, Consultation and Initial Community Involvement   August 2010  

Carolyn Kagan  Karen Duggan,  Breaking down barriers: universities and communities working together 2009

Asiya Siddiquee  Carolyn Kagan Carla de Santis  Raheela Ali Evaluation of intergen: intergenerational understanding, wellbeing and social capital 2008

Karen Duggan and Carolyn Kagan   'We Don't Believe You Want a Genuine Partnership’: Universities Work with Communities. 
 September 2007

Ryan Woolrych,  Judith Sixsmith,  Carolyn Kagan,  The impact of regeneration on the well-being of local residents: the case of East Manchester 2007

Ryan Woolrych,  Judith Sixsmith,  Carolyn Kagan,  The impact of regeneration on the well-being of local residents: the case of East Manchester 2007

... more on Community Psychology from the MMU repository

Review of Mehrota, S. and E. Delamonica. Eliminating Human Poverty: Macroeconomic and social policies for equitable growth Journal of Health Management, 11, 2 (2009): 431–435 by Mark Burton Pre-publication draft.

McMillan, A. S., & Burton, M. (2009). From parent education to collective action: "Childrearing with love" in post-war Guatemala. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19(3), 198-211.  DOI: 10.1002/casp.990.  

A Green Deal for the Manchester-Mersey Bioregion  - Mark Burton  pamphlet   website  (an evolving project)
Inspired by the New Economics Foundation pamphlet on the triple crisis (climate change, peak energy and financial meltdown) this pamphlet appiles some of the thinking at a regional level.  Drawing on both permaculture and historical materialism, it also contains a critique of the New Green Deal's Keynsian approach.  What do you think - is this the terrain of community psychology in the years to come?

Paper by John Mason making  "the case for a comprehensive and systematic study of the likely effects of the redevelopment of the King’s Cross railway lands and the separate but related rebuilding and decking over of Euston Station.  It’s argued that an independent study, properly constructed, can inform both public opinion and decision-makers of the scale and nature of changes of these two very large developments.  Also that it can help to shape priorities, improve co-ordination and ensure accountability."
This is a very well argued paper that is relevant to the theme of regeneration - who benefits?.

Pillars of support for wellbeing in the community: the role of the public sector  Carolyn Kagan  This paper was presented at the Wellbeing and Sustainable Living Seminar, held at Manchester Metropolitan University, 24th May 2007.

"All in the same boat.  The nightmare has gone and you’re with other like-minded people” 
Report to the Parkinson’s Disease Society (UK): Psycho-social impact of participation in a holistic therapy programme for people with Parkinson’s Disease, volunteer therapists and family members.  Carolyn Kagan and Diane Loggenberg,   April 2007
(large document)

Towards Transformation:  Exploring the impact of culture, creativity and the arts on health and wellbeing.  September 2007  
Amanda Kilroy, Charlotte Garner, Clive Parkinson, Carolyn Kagan & Peter Senior.  Arts for Health, Manchester Metropolitan University.
(large document).

Joy at work: the impact of non-professional singing workshops on employee wellbeing: Report of the Joy at Work Singing Workshops included as part of the Research Institute for Health and Social Change Annual Conference, Manchester 2007.  Christina Purcell  and Carolyn Kagan

Towards a really social psychology: Liberation Psychology beyond Latin America. Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan (draft of chapter published in  Montero and Sonn: Psychology of Liberation Theory and Applications)                                   ->More on Liberation Psychology

Action Research. Carolyn Kagan, Mark Burton, Asiya Siddiquee Prepublication draft of chapter for the Handbook of qualitative research methods in psychology.

Public policy initiatives and their impact on communities: challenges for community psychology.  Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan.  We can't get this one published - but at least you can read it here!  Some say it isn't Community Psychology.....   What do you think?

Psychologists and torture: more than a question of interrogation.  The Psychologist.  2007, 20, (8), 484-487.  
Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan   link to journal
Also.... Radio debate featuring Dave Harper (Univ East London) that followed up this article debating the role of psychologists in the military listen here.

Making the Psychological Political:  Challenges for Community Psychology.  Mark Burton, Carolyn Kagan and Paul Duckett.  2008
Community psychology deals with the life of groups of people in context and is therefore inevitably concerned with their struggles, successes, projects and
dreams. Sooner or later, because these contexts are constructed economically, politically and historically, engagement with the political is inevitable as all social
groups encounter social and economic interests that differ from their own. Based on a paper presented at the International Congress of Community Psychology, Lisboa, 2008 
Read the article
Published: Burton, M., Kagan, CM, & Duckett, P. (2013). Making the psychological political – challenges forcommunity psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 50–63). Presented at the 2nd. International Conference of Community Psychology 2008, Lisbon: Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice.

The Birmingham Manifesto: Community Psychology in a Global Context (collective of authors), contains: 'A global context for psychology'

Working at the 'edge'  Carolyn Kagan on community practice  
link to The Psychologist 
20 (4) April 2007, 224-227

Based on lecture given on the occasion of the BPS award Promoting Equality of Opportunity 

It keeps you active ….. sometimes it's hard”: Accounts of Community Involvement 
Simona Raschini, Angela Stewart and Carolyn Kagan    Research Institute for Health and Social Change  Manchester Metropolitan University  see also
Community leadership in Research: Accounts of community activism.
Angela Stewart, Carolyn Kagan and Simona Raschini.
and  The psychological effects of active participation in communities. (poster) Carolyn Kagan, Sue Castile,
Angela Stewart. RIHSC.  Manchester Metropolitan University

Pathways Project Evaluation 
Art makes me feel I have resources, otherwise untapped.”
Final report  October 2005 
by Judith Sixsmith and Carolyn Kagan  RIHSC Research Institute for Health and Social Change Manchester Metropolitan University
Report on Evaluation of Participatory Arts Projects in the Mental Health Field
Option 1  .pdf   warning:  very big file 7.8 Mbytes
Option 2 - zipped archive somewhat smaller  4.4 Mbytes
Option 3 - a paper copy can be ordered, price £10 from
Manchester Metropolitan University
Elizabeth Gaskell Campus
Hathersage Road
M13 0JA

Making a difference: Participation and wellbeing .pdf Carolyn Kagan,  RENEW Intelligence Report January 2006

also see  Health hazards:  Community participation is a good thing? Not when it burns out the participants - summary of Carolyn's article published in

PUPILS’ EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING IN SCHOOL: Preliminary Report for the Healthy Schools’ Team Northmoor LEA (pseudonym) by Judith Sixsmith, Carolyn Kagan and Paul Duckett        .pdf
Research Institute for Health and Social Change, Manchester Metropolitan University,  May 2004

Review of the East Manchester Neighbourhood Nuisance Team .pdf - report by   Carolyn Kagan and Asiya Siddiquee.  July 2005

Community Psychology Meets Participatory Arts: Well-being and creativity .pdf Carolyn Kagan, Judith Sixsmith, Asiya Siddiquee, Simone Bol, Rebecca Lawthom, Amanda Kilroy
Paper delivered to HOMINIS, International Conference. Havana, Cuba, October 2005.

Community Psychology in Britain .pdf - draft of chapter.  By  Mark Burton, Stephanie Boyle, Carl Harris, Carolyn Kagan.
 Chapter (read full text online)  published in International Community Psychology: History and Theories.  Reich, S.; Riemer, M.; Prilleltensky, I.; Montero, M. (Eds.) 2007, ISBN: 978-0-387-49499-9

see also British Clinical Psychology in Historical Perspective: The Genesis of a Profession

Report: Responsive Services for Learning Disabled People from Minority Ethnic Communities. Sue Caton, Samantha Starling, Mark Burton, Sabiha Azmi, and Melanie Chapman.   Research Digest no 8 from the North West Collaborative learning disability research site  Journal article: Caton, S., Starling, S., Burton, M., Azmi, S. and Chapman, M. (2007), Responsive services for people with learning disabilities from minority ethnic communities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35: 229–235. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3156.2007.00454.x

Papers from the  UK Community Psychology Conference held in Exeter, October 14-16, 2004

'Boundary critique' community psychology and citizen participation.  Word 97 file  PDF file Carolyn Kagan, Sue Caton, Amisha Amin, Amna Choudry,   New version 4 Nov 2004
Manchester Metropolitan University.  Paper delivered to European Community Psychology Conference, Berlin. September 2004.

Community Psychological Perspectives and Work with People with Learning Difficulties  .pdf   Carolyn Kagan and Mark Burton  
In press: 
Clinical Psychology

Exclusión, discapacidad, y cambio social .  Word 97 file. (Exclusion, disability and social change)
Carolyn Kagan y Mark Burton   Paper presented at the Universidad Nacional Pedagógica de México, Cuernavaca, and the Universidad Autónoma de México, Iztapalapa, March, 2004.

(not available in English)

Living Poverty in the UK: Community psychology as accompaniment  .pdf  Irene Edge , Carolyn Kagan  and Angela Stewart  2003  Published - Clinical Psychology 2004

also:  Irene and Angela tell professionals about real poverty  from the Middleton and North Manchester Guardian.


But some are more equal than others: the reciprocal relevance of community psychology and interdisciplinary research on health and income inequalities. .pdf David Fryer (University of Stirling) Paper presented at European Network of Community Psychology, Leuven,Belgium 2003.


Papers on Liberation Psychology 
Liberation Psychology Network (in English)  

For more recent papers, see Mark Burton's Academia page.

Viva Nacho!  Liberating Psychology in Latin America by Mark Burton - The Psychologist ,17, (10), 584-587, October 2004-  .pdf

Liberation Social Psychology:  Learning From Latin America .pdf by Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan  in 
Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology  
(2005) 15, (1), 63-78.   .pdf click to download

A related paper in Spanish:  La Psicología de la Liberación: Aprendiendo de América Latina (Word  97 file) translated with the help of Joel Vázquez (Universidad Autónoma de México, Unidad de Iztapalapa)  in the Mexican journal POLIS, 1, 101-124.

Some of this material  was previously presented at:-  Community and Critical Psychology conference – Birmingham Sept. 2003,  British Psychological Society – History and Philosophy section conference, March 2002, Community and Organisational Psychology Research group, Manchester Metropolitan University, January 2002.

The Liberia Manifesto:  Declaration of the 7th International Congress of Liberation Social Psychology, Liberia, Costa Rica, November, 2005


Final Report  of an Evaluation of the Community Development Exchange (formerly Standing Conference for Community Development) Web-site  .pdf Carolyn Kagan, and Asiya Siddiquee   Word version


Participative Learning for Evaluation: A systems approach to the development of evaluation capability in community health projects  .pdf
Carolyn Kagan, Alan Boyd, Ted Geerling, Wendy Gregory, Gerald Midgley, Peter Murray and Mike Walsh
An earlier version of a  paper delivered to  ALARPM 6th and PAR 10th World Congress, Pretoria, South Africa, September 2003


The context of mental health difficulties and well being.   .pdf   Talk given to BEHAF (British Ethnic Health Awareness Foundation) 
Carolyn Kagan and Raheela Ali              


Community Psychology:  Why this gap in Britain? 
PDF Document)  Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan  - Pre-publication draft of   Burton, M and Kagan, C  (2003)  Community psychology:  why this gap in Britain?  History and Philosophy of Psychology  4, (2),  10-23.


Making the Road by Walking It... some possibilities for a community social psychology   Carolyn Kagan's inaugural professorial lecture at Manchester Metropolitan University :  30 January 2002  read the text on line!!


Marginalization pre-editorial chapter draft.  Looks at the nature of social marginalization, its causes and dimensions, and some ways of working with and for those who have been marginalised.   .pdf  file  (needs Acrobat Reader)   In Isaac Prilleltensky and Geoff Nelson:  Community Psychology: in pursuit of wellness and liberation.  publication Nov 2004 -> link to publisher's page for this book (Palgrave MacMillan).


Working with People who are marginalized by the social system: challenges for community psychological work  .pdf Carolyn Kagan, Diane Burns, Mark Burton, Isabel Crespo, Rob Evans, Kath Knowles, José Luis Lalueza and Judith Sixsmith.  Paper presented at the European Community Psychology Conference:  Barcelona, November 2002.. - now published in In A Sánchez Vidal, A Zambrano Constanzo and M Palacín Lois (Eds.) (2004) Psicología Comunitaria Europea: Comunidad, Poder Ética y Valores / European Community Psychology: Community, Power, Ethics and Values. Barcelona: Publicacions Universitat de Barcelona. Pp. 400-412. (Papers from the European Community Psychology Congress, Barcelona, November, 2002).


Radical psychology networks: a review and guide.  Mark Burton
Paper presented at V Congreso Internacional de la Psicología Social de la Liberación, (Mesa Redonda:  Organizaciones y Practicas Alternativas de Psicología fuera de América Latina)  Universidad de Guadalajara, México, November 2002
English version (con resumén en castellano).  pdf file.  Presents a friendly critical analysis of the the various networks of critical / radical psychology, setting them in the context of the situation of professionals and intellectuals in these core capitalist societies.  Does not deal with the situation in North America (which was the topic covered by Tod Sloan in the same round table).  Includes appendix with links to such networks worldwide.
(Updated version posted April 2004, published in Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 2004 14, 119- 130


Proposal for Evaluation of the Information and Experience Exchange Project, Standing Conference for Community Development   Carolyn Kagan   June 2002


Ethical Praxis: new theoretical insights and everyday  practice. Mark Burton   .pdf  file  (needs Acrobat Reader)  Paper presented at the first European IASSID conference: Dublin June 2002  - here is a shorter,  tighter version that with the passing of time we actually prefer!

Applies ideas from Dussel's Ethics of Liberation and from Critical Systems Theory to the problem of everyday ethical practice in supporting people disabled through intellectual difficulty.   Corrected version posted 30/6/02.    Never got around to  publishing this one!


Review of Gerald Midgley's Systemic Intervention    Mark Burton
Journal of Community and Applied Psychology 2003
13 (4) 330-333.   pdf file 


Report of the development of understanding of the Family Based Intervention for Children with Cerebral Palsy and their Inclusion in the Community  project from the perspectives of occupational therapy and community psychology Carolyn Kagan, Manchester Metropolitan University  and Sally Scott-Roberts, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff    COP Occasional Papers: Number 1/02   Based on work with the Indian Institute of Cerebral Palsy:  Kolkata. 
either:  Word 97 file  or .PDF format file.


The need for witness support:  Report of Feasibility Study of a Community Witness Support Scheme for Heartlands, North Town  Carolyn Kagan , Sue Caton, and Amisha Amin,  January 2001
Word 97 File to downloa


Intellectually disabled people as participant citizens  (con résumen en español)  Mark Burton , Melanie Chapman, Anna Fedeczko, Richard Hughes, Jackie Kilbane, Tom McLean and Pat Ashworth
Manchester UK
Paper Given at the Fourth International Conference on Liberation Social Psychology / psicología social de la liberación,  Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala,  Guatemala City,  November 2001.
Draws on work done in MLDP to make connections with ideas from social psychology of/for liberation.


Community Psychology Praxis for the 21st Century  (PDF file) Carolyn Kagan and Mark Burton
Paper presented at British Psychology Conference Community Psychology Symposium
Glasgow, March 2001
This major position statement is now available:

- also see our paper on prefigurative action research - Kagan and Burton 2000


Community Activism, Participation and Social Capital on a Peripheral Housing Estate  
Carolyn Kagan, Rebecca Lawthom, Kath Knowles and Mark Burton
Paper given at the European Community Psychology Conference: Bergen, Norway, September, 2000.


Prefigurative Action Research: an alternative basis for critical psychology?
Carolyn Kagan and Mark Burton
Paper given at International Conference on Critical Psychology and Action Research, July 1999
A revised version was published in Annual Review of Critical Psychology 2000.
Provides a framework for socially progressive action research - we regard this as a key paper in the approach represented by most of the other work on this page.


Edge effects, resource utilisation and community psychology html version 
Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan
Paper given at the European Community Psychology Conference: Bergen, Norway, September, 2000.  Applies an ecological phenomenon, as metaphor, to community psychological work. .pdf version


The Creation of Settings as Social Change:  the Role of Social Movements
Mark Burton  and Carolyn Kagan (.pdf file) 
based on paper given at National Community Psychology Conference MMU, Jan 199


Karen Dunne, Natalie Holloway, Carolyn Kagan, Kath Knowles, Rebecca Lawthom
Paper given at National Community Psychology Conference MMU, Jan 1999


Mal Choudhury and Carolyn Kagan
Paper given at National Community Psychology Conference MMU, Jan 1999


Social Skills for People with Learning Disabilities: A social capability approach.

Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan
London: Chapman and Hall  1995. 

This text brings together a community psychology approach to combatting the marginalisation of intellectually disabled people with a broad based analysis of social competence and methods for increasing it.   We link the ideas of social integration and the responsibilitiesof the community to include all its members with social competence at an individual level through our concept of social capability.

A recent blog review (2011) CLICK


Developing and Managing High Quality Learning Disability Services

Mark Burton and Mike Kellaway (Editors)
Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998.
This text, as the title suggests, is mostly about formal health and social services provision, and is written by staff from the Manchester Learning Disability Partnership. However, running through are the (Community Psychology)  themes of participation, inclusion and empowerment, and these get special treatment in chapters on public safety, quality, user involvement, and planning with people.

       'This is essentially a practical book, full of good ideas and examples of good practice. It speaks directly to
       readers, inviting them to think about their own service and how it might be improved.' Community Care 


Rethinking empowerment: shared action against powerlessness
Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan. A version was published in I Parker and R Spears:  Psychology and Society:   Radical Theory and Practice.  London:  Pluto Press, 1996. (now out of print).
Applies ideas from Freire, Habermas, Gramsci and Marx to the idea and practice of empowerment, doing a certain amount of de-psychologising of the idea, situating it in collective social action.

The psychologist as developer of services  (Word 6 file)  Mark Burton 
Presentation to Conference: El Psicólogo ante los nuevos desafíos en ambientes educativos. Universidad Central de Venezuela 23 Nov 2000
Versión en español: El psicólogo como promotor de servicios.  (archivo en format Word 6  traducido por Manuel Aramayo y Mark Burton)

Agencies and Advocacies  (PDF file)
Carolyn Kagan
Report published by North West Development Team on response of provider organisations to citizen advocates.

Participation in and by Communities: What can we learn from Community Development?  (PDF file)
Carolyn Kagan & David Race
Report published by North West Development Team

Quality of Life Following Resettlement for Three Elderly Men  (PDF file)
Alison Roberts & Carolyn Kagan
Report published by North West Development Team

Teaching about the Individual and Society links to clinical psychology trainees.   Ian Fleming and Mark Burton  (Version of paper that appeared in Clinical Psychology 2001 Issue 6.)

Towards an alternative basis for policy and practice in Community Care - with special reference to people with learning disabilities. Mark Burton  prepublication draft.pdf  of paper published inCare in Place:  International Journal of Networks and Community  1994, 1, (2), 158-174.

Complementarism versus incommensurability in psychological research methodology Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan longer prepublication draft.pdf  of paper published in M. Cheung-Chung (ed.) (1998) Current Trends
in History and Philosophy of Psychology Leicester: British Psychological Society ISBN 1 85433 265 1

The Verbal Community and the Societal Construction of Consciousness  Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan
prepublication draft (Word6) of paper published in Behavior and Social Issues, 1994, 4, (1and 2), 87-96.

Societal case formulation - an outline. (PDF file) Mark Burton (based on work by Peter Leonard)  an antidote to 'clinical case formulation'.
Societal case formulation - Expanded version 
(PDF file) with additions by Carolyn Kagan (2008) - departs from Leonard's framework but provides a more comprehensive framework for exploring how a person has come to be who they are.

Mark  Burton  (1983) What do we mean by evaluation?  A shorter version appeared in the Health Service Journal 1986, 17 July, 954-945   pdf  (scanned image)

British Clinical Psychology in Historical Perspective: The Genesis of a Profession.  
Mark Burton and Carolyn Kagan
Unpublished (indeed much rejected!) article that uses the controversy over the BPS Medical Section in the late 1950s to try and understand some of the dynamics of the emergence of the new profession of clinical psychology in the context of the modernisation of mental health, psychiatry, and related aspects of socia ladministration of the inconvenient.  The article has been cited and requested quite often.  It appears here with a new (2007) foreword).  
pdf  (scanned image)  The article is mostly scanned from the original manuscript .

Mark  Burton  (1983) Understanding mental health services:  theory and practice.  Critical Social Policy , 3, (7), 54 – 74.   pdf file
A scanned version of the original paper, so the print quality is not great
(and the file is large 1.6 Meg )The title is a little misleading – the article is relevant to all disadvantaged, marginalised, stigmatised, unvalued people.   My working title was retainedby the journal after I changed it to something more apt - if ponderous!
The article, despite being 20 years old has interest for two reasons:
1)  It was the first to mention Prefigurative Action Research, later developed by Carolyn Kagan and myself:  (2000) in Prefigurative Action Research:  An alternative basis for critical psychology?   Annual Review of Critical Psychology  2. 
2)  It sets W. Wolfensberger's work within a wider societal context, a task that has been attempted at times, but perhaps less sympathetically than here.  It also was one of the first to make a link between at least his earlier work and labelling theory, that is to say the symbolic interactionist social psychological theory of deviance, a link that he denied.

Further publications of Carolyn Kagan

Further publications of Mark Burton

Community Psychology UK home